Skip to content

Essays Heroes America

An American Perspective on the War of 1812

by Donald Hickey

The War of 1812 is probably our most obscure conflict.  Although a great deal has been written about the war, the average American is only vaguely aware of why we fought or who the enemy was.  Even those who know something about the contest are likely to remember only a few dramatic moments, such as the writing of “The Star-Spangled Banner,” the burning of the nation’s capital, or the Battle of New Orleans.           

Why is this war so obscure?  One reason is that no great president is associated with the conflict.  Although his enemies called it "Mr. Madison's War," James Madison was shy and deferential, hardly measuring up to such war leaders as Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson, or Franklin Roosevelt.  Moreover, the best American generals in this war – Andrew Jackson, Jacob Brown, and Winfield Scott – were unable to turn the tide because each was confined to a one or two theaters in a war that had seven or eight theaters.  No one like George Washington, Ulysses Grant, or Dwight Eisenhower emerged to put his stamp on the war and to carry the nation to victory.

Another reason for the obscurity of this war is that its causes are complex and little understood today.  Most scholars agree that the war was fought over maritime issues, particularly the Orders in Council, which restricted American trade with the European Continent, and impressment, which was the Royal Navy’s practice of removing seamen from American merchant vessels.  In contemporary parlance, the war was fought for "Free Trade and Sailors' Rights."  These issues seem arcane today.  Moreover, the only way that the United States to strike at Great Britain was by attacking Canada, and that made it look like a war of territorial aggression.  Even today Canadians are likely to see the war in this light, and who can blame them?  A war fought to secure maritime rights by invading Canada strikes many people as curious.


The Consequences of the War

If the causes of the war are obscure, so too are the consequences.  The United States has won most of its wars, often emerging with significant concessions from the enemy.  But the War of 1812 was different.  Far from bringing the enemy to terms, the nation was lucky to escape without making extensive concessions itself.  The Treaty of Ghent (which ended the conflict) said nothing about the maritime issues that had caused the war and contained nothing to suggest that America had achieved its aims.  Instead, it merely provided for returning to the status quo ante bellum – the state that had existed before the war.

The prosecution of the war was marred by considerable bungling and mismanagement.  This was partly due to the nature of the republic.  The nation was too young and immature – and its government too feeble and inexperienced – to prosecute a major war efficiently.  Politics also played a part.  Federalists vigorously opposed the conflict, and so too did some Republicans.  Even those who supported the war feuded among themselves and never displayed the sort of patriotic enthusiasm that has been so evident in other American wars.  The advocates of war appeared to support the conflict more with their heads than their hearts, and more with their hearts than their purses.  As a result, efforts to raise men and money lagged far behind need.
Despite the bungling and half-hearted support that characterized this conflict, the War of 1812 was not without its stirring moments and splendid victories.  American success at the Thames in the Northwest, the victories at Chippewa and Fort Erie on the Niagara front, the rousing defense of Baltimore in the Chesapeake, and the crushing defeat of the British at New Orleans – all these showed that with proper leadership and training American fighting men could hold their own against the well-drilled and battle-hardened regulars of Great Britain.  Similarly, the naval victories on the northern lakes and the high seas and the success of privateers around the globe demonstrated that, given the right odds, the nation’s armed ships matched up well against even the vaunted and seemingly invincible Mistress of the Seas.   

The war also produced its share of heroes–people whose reputations were enhanced by military or government service.  The war helped catapult four men into the presidency – Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, James Monroe, and William Henry Harrison – and three men into the vice-presidency – Daniel D. Tompkins, John C. Calhoun, and Richard M. Johnson.  The war also gave a significant boost to the political or military careers of other men.  Indeed, for many young men on the make, the war offered an excellent launching pad for a career.

In some ways, the War of 1812 looked more to the past than to the future.  As America's second and last war against Great Britain, it echoed the ideology and issues of the American Revolution.  It was the second and last time that America was the underdog in a war and the second and last time that the nation tried to conquer Canada.  It was also the last time that Indians played a major role in determining the future of the continent.  In this sense, the War of 1812 was the last of the North American colonial wars.  The war was unusual in generating such vehement political opposition and nearly unique in ending in a stalemate on the battlefield.  Although most Americans pretended they had won the war – even calling it a "Second War of Independence"–they could point to few concrete gains – certainly none in the peace treaty – to sustain this claim.

It is this lack of success that may best explain why the war is so little remembered.  Americans have characteristically judged their wars on the basis of their success.  The best-known wars – the Revolution, the Civil War, and World War II – were all clear-cut successes.  Although many people remembered the War of 1812 as a success, it was in a very real sense a failure, and perhaps this is why it attracts so little attention today.

The obscurity of this war, however, should not blind us to its significance, for it was an important turning point, a great watershed, in the history of the young republic.  It concluded almost a quarter of a century of troubled diplomacy and partisan politics and ushered in the Era of Good Feelings.  It marked the end of the Federalist party but the vindication of Federalist policies, many of which were adopted by Republicans during or after the war.  The war also broke the power of American Indians and reinforced the powerful undercurrent of Anglophobia that had been spawned by the Revolution a generation before.  In addition, it promoted national self-confidence and encouraged the heady expansionism that lay at the heart of American foreign policy for the rest of the century.  Finally, the war gave the fledgling republic a host of sayings, symbols, and songs that helped Americans define who they were and where their young republic was headed.  Although looking to the past, the war was fraught with consequences for the future, and for this reason it is worth studying today.

Donald R. Hickey is a professor of history at Wayne State College, Wayne, Nebraska.  He is the author of  Don't Give Up the Ship: Myths of the War of 1812 and The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict.

The American Hero

  • Length: 468 words (1.3 double-spaced pages)
  • Rating: Excellent
Open Document

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - More ↓
The American Hero


     For many years the American Hero has filled the silver screen and wide screened television sets, along with shelves of countless bookstores. Audiences love to see the protagonist overcome great odds, defeat the forces of evil, and save the beautiful girl at the last second. The character of the American Hero however, is not a new idea. James Cooper, in the 1800’s, created the archetype of the American Hero. Natty Bumpo, also called Deerslayer, embodied many qualities of the great American Hero. Modern day heroes are simply following the example set by Cooper’s creation.
     Two qualities that many heroes possess are bravery and honesty. In the excerpt “Deerslayer Escapes”, Natty Bumpo exhibits these two traits when he returns to accept his punishment for killing a great Huron warrior. His punishment for killing is death. Knowing this and still returning to the tribe shows tremendous bravery. After Deerslayer returns, Cooper writes the reaction of the tribe. The leader, Rivenoak, describes Natty of being brave and honest, by saying, “ Paleface, you are honest. We shall treat you as a brave.” Natty Bumpo speaks of his own honesty when he refuses to take their compromise for death. The solution is against what Deerslayer believes in so he doesn’t go along with the plan.
          Heroes are also expected to stick to their beliefs, regardless of consequences. After killing the Huron’s best warrior, the Hurons offer Natty a solution. He must marry the widow of the fallen warrior. The reason is because there is no one to hunt or provide for the family. Deerslayer doesn’t mind providing for the family, but refuses to marry the widow, who is old enough to be his mother. He responds with this “As for feeding the children, I would do that cheerfully, could it be done without discredit.”
     The stereotypical hero is usually skilled with a weapon. Natty is in pioneer times, so there isn’t much choice in weaponry. Besides his gun that he kills deer with, there isn’t much that Deerslayer can do. When facing the tribe, waiting on his sentence, Le Panther, the Huron leader, throws a tomahawk at Natty. With his quick thinking he grabs the tomahawk before it even gets to him. He throws it back at Panther.

How to Cite this Page

MLA Citation:
"The American Hero." 123HelpMe.com. 11 Mar 2018
    <http://www.123HelpMe.com/view.asp?id=88524>.

LengthColor Rating 
The American Hero: An Uphill Battle Essay - What comes to mind when uttering the phrase, “American hero?” Do you conjure images of firemen, police officers, or even such mythical figures as Superman and Wonder woman (who have come to symbolize American ideals). Perhaps you are thwarted in an attempt to place the appropriate title of “American hero,” to any individual in the present tense. This last decade has, for Americans, been full of tribulation and hardship. In the face of disasters, many have shown extreme bravery and patriotism. Are these people American heroes....   [tags: heroes, USA,]669 words
(1.9 pages)
Better Essays[preview]
Sergeant York: An American Hero Essay - Sergeant York An American Hero Struggling with the woes of poverty and added responsibilities, Alvin York, discovers himself fleeing from religion with Satan dangling securely to his shirttail. York is a round character that is a rabble-rouser in the beginning, yet evolves into an extraordinary spiritual man. “Sergeant York” is a 1941 film portraying the trials and triumphs of Sergeant Alvin York. Based on real situations, the aforementioned flick depicts the life of a boy who grew up in the Tennessee Hills, then went off to fight in a war that would mold him into an American Hero....   [tags: Wold War II fighters]617 words
(1.8 pages)
Better Essays[preview]
An American Hero: Joseph Smith Essay - ... He prayed to know which church denomination was correct. In answer to his prayer, he was granted a vision that told him that none of the church denominations were correct, and that the correct way would be revealed to him at a future date. Three years passed, and Joseph Smith was disliked by the community by his proclamation that he had seen God. Again, he prayed, this time asking for forgiveness for his mistakes and silliness he had done as a young child. He was greeted by a vision of an angel, which told him that the full gospel was ready to be given to all nations....   [tags: prophet, mormonism, religion, kill]
:: 4 Works Cited
841 words
(2.4 pages)
Strong Essays[preview]
Edward Snowden: An American Hero Essay - Edward Snowden, the former National Security Agency (N.S.A) subcontractor turned whistle-blower is nothing short of a hero. His controversial decision to release information detailing the highly illegal ‘data mining’ practices of the N.S.A have caused shockwaves throughout the world and have raised important questions concerning how much the government actually monitors its people without their consent or knowledge. Comparable to Mark Felt in the Watergate scandals, Daniel Ellsberg with the Pentagon Papers, Edward Snowden joins the rank of infamous whistleblowers who gave up their jobs, livelihood, and forever will live under scrutiny of the public all in the service to the American people....   [tags: Edward Snowden Essays]676 words
(1.9 pages)
Better Essays[preview]
Essay on The American Hero - The American Hero For many years the American Hero has filled the silver screen and wide screened television sets, along with shelves of countless bookstores. Audiences love to see the protagonist overcome great odds, defeat the forces of evil, and save the beautiful girl at the last second. The character of the American Hero however, is not a new idea. James Cooper, in the 1800’s, created the archetype of the American Hero. Natty Bumpo, also called Deerslayer, embodied many qualities of the great American Hero....   [tags: essays research papers]468 words
(1.3 pages)
Strong Essays[preview]
Essay on The American Hero - The American Hero Every child has fantasy's of being a super hero and leaping tall buildings in a single bound or staring death in the face everyday and somehow finding a way to escape. All of these imaginative thoughts have been derived from the past literary works by the great writers of the early American literary period. These early writers entered society into a world of action and adventure, where one can see spectacular events unfolding through the eyes of a notorious man of courage and feel as though they are defending there country or saving the woman they love....   [tags: essays research papers]2149 words
(6.1 pages)
Powerful Essays[preview]
Walt Disney the American Hero Essays - Walt Disney the American Hero Walt Disney; When that name is spoken faces of children and adults alike light up with looks of sheer joy. When debating what to see at the movies the newest Disney flick is almost always decided upon over the others. With Disney people are 100 percent sure to walk out of the theater happy and smiling. From the catchy theme songs to the thrilling theme parks Disney has built the fantasy empire. Although he built the fantasy world Disney was not a man who walked around with his head in the clouds....   [tags: essays research papers]1375 words
(3.9 pages)
Strong Essays[preview]
The True American Hero Essays - The True American Hero Heroism demands self-sacrifice, self-discipline, self-confidence and self-respect. Ulysses S. Grant had these qualities in their most complete form. He set out from humble beginnings, and failed. At the age of 38 was a conspicuous failure. Then, like few of us, he succeeded beyond belief. Had he not had tremendous greatness within him, he could never have accomplished what he did. How did such a simple, honest and humble man raise himself in the eyes of his people and the world to the highest position a man or woman can reach - that of a national hero....   [tags: Essays Papers]1333 words
(3.8 pages)
Strong Essays[preview]
Longfellow's Unique American Hero in Evangeline Essay example - Longfellow's Unique American hero in Evangeline       Abstract: Longfellow's portrayal of the American Adam is set apart in that he does not praise this character as a role model for others. The concept of the American Adam is seen in a different light through the depiction of Basil in the narrative poem Evangeline.   R.W.B. Lewis explores the quest of the writers of the American Renaissance to create a literature that is uniquely American in his 1955 text, The American Adam: Innocence, Tragedy, and Tradition in the Nineteenth Century....   [tags: Longfellow Evangeline Essays]
:: 3 Works Cited
1537 words
(4.4 pages)
Strong Essays[preview]
ronald reagan: a true american hero Essay - Reagan: A True American Hero” “We will continue our quest in space. There will be more flights and more space shuttle crews. And, yes, more volunteers.” -Ronald Reagan Ronald Reagan, viewed by some as a true American hero, was as stupendous as presidents can be. His dramatic speeches and down-to-earth personality made people proud to be American. Ronald Reagan seemed more then American. He was a patriot. Ronald Reagan cared deeply for the American people as well at their values....   [tags: essays research papers]1189 words
(3.4 pages)
Strong Essays[preview]

Related Searches

American Hero         Silver Screen         Modern Day         Widow         Excerpt         Stick         Odds         Treat         Cooper        




The weapon hits panther right in-between the eyes, he is dead instantly. The whole tribe is shocked, the author tells us “luckily the loud tones of the speaker had drawn the eye of Natty towards him, or else that would have probably closed his career”
     James Fenimoore Cooper created the first American Hero in the early 1800’s with his epic tales of a pioneer named Natty Bumpo, better known as Deerslayer. He exhibited many qualities expected of heroes. Even today modern literary heroic characters are simply following the model that Cooper created.