This quote from the last chapter of Lord of the Flies is one of the most memorable ones. You are quite right that there are some literary devices used to make such a line so full of pathos. "The darkness of man's heart" is a metaphor for evil, savagery, power struggles that so plagued the boys on the island. In this particular metaphor the literal reference to evil and savagery is implied rather than being directly stated; the figurative term "darkness of man's heart" is stated.
"Fall" in the next line is both literal and figurative. Piggy did fall through the air to his death; but "fall" can also be a metaphor for Piggy's decline in influence and power throughout the novel. As Jack grows more brazen and powerful, Piggy becomes more and more helpless. His glasses are broken and later stolen. Before his death, he is trying to talk some sense into the boys but his words only result in mocking laughter and a deliberate murder.
I can't help but think that the first two words, "Ralph wept" are an allusion to the biblical verse "Jesus wept." Ralph, like Jesus, is indeed weeping for man's inhumanity to man.
If your analysis could include rhetorical devices, you might note that the sentence contains parallelism; repetition of the same grammatical structure. Each item in the three-part list is comprised of a noun followed by a prepositional phrase.
Ralph Wept Essay
A naval ship comes to the island after seeing the blazing fire in the jungle. After being chased by the savage hunters with sharp wooden spears, Ralph ends up on the beach where he collapses in exhaustion. He looks up to see a naval officer standing over him. A sudden realization comes to him that he is safe and will be returned to civilization but plunges him into a reflective despair. "Ralph wept for the end of innocence, the darkness of man's heart, and the fall through the air of a true, wise friend called Piggy." This passage from chapter 12 proves very effective in concluding Golding's famous novel, Lord of the flies. The rescue is not a moment of unequivocal joy, for Ralph realizes that, although he is saved from death on the island, he will never be the same. Through Ralph's scarred psychology, this intriguing passage lightly recaps on the horrific consequences that took place on the island.
From the beginning to the end of the story we see the disintegration of innocence. As story progresses so does the gradual decomposition of common good. We see this perfectly in some boys more than others, especial Roger. Nearer the beginning, in chapter 4 it is clear that the politically disordered island has not yet had its great influence on the boys, but we do see and indication. Almost like a prophecy of what's to come. "Roger gathered a handful of stones and began to throw them. Yet there was a space round Henry, perhaps six yards in diameter, into which he dare not throw. " Golding uses this passage to show how Rogers protected old life at an English private school still influences his decision-making and controls the darkness within. Then Roger starts to throw the stones around the littlun like he's tormenting him. This indicates that maybe there exists an urge inside to commit the uncivilized act of afflicting pain on a small innocent child. But the taboo of the old life's law's rules and regulations still keeps good from evil. Round the squatting child was the protection of parents, school, and policemen, but all of which are nonexistent on the island. Through this passage we observe the beginning of the disintegration of innocence within Roger and an early step in the groups decline to savagery.
Nearer the end of the story it becomes clear that evil savagery overrules innocence in the minds of the hunters. In chapter 11 when Piggy wants his glasses back, civilization meets savagery and Jack and Ralph fight. "As Piggy tries to speak, hoping to remind the group of the importance of rules and rescue, Roger shoves a massive rock down the mountainside. The boulder strikes Piggy, shatters the conch shell he...
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